Facts on Beijing|
Beijing Facts - General Facts about Beijing, the capital of People's Republic of China.
Beijing is the capital of the People's Republic of China. The municipality is under direct administration of China's Central Government. The city is the center of politics, culture, and international exchanges, as well as one of the largest metropolises of industry, finance and trade.
City Flower: Chinese rose and chrysanthemum
City Trees: Oriental arborvitae and cypress.
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Beijing is located at 39 degrees 56'N and 116 degrees 20'E, covers an area of 16,808 square kilometers, of which two-thirds are mountainous areas encircling the western northern and eastern sides of the city. The center of the city is 43.71 meters above the sea level. Main rivers include the Yongding River, the Chaobai River and the North Canal.
Beijing has a semi-humid climate with clearly cut seasons. Spring and autumn are short while winter and summer are long. The average annual temperature amounts to 13 degrees Celsius (averaging 25.2 degrees Celsius in July, the hottest month, and 3.7 degrees Celsius in January, the coldest month). The annual precipitation comes to 506.7 mm and the frost-free period lasts 189 days.
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Population and Nationality
Beijing has 10.6 million permanent residents. The transient population is over 3 million. The permanent residents of Beijing come from all of China's 56 ethnic groups. The Han nationality accounts for 96.5% of the total. The other 55 ethnic minorities claim a population of more than 300,000, most of them are from Hui, Manchu, and Mongolian nationalities.
Legislative and Executive Organs
Beijing People's Congress(BPC)-Beijing People's Congress and its Standing Committee are the organ of state power, consisting of a general office and five committees. BPC is elected for a term of five years. Its deputies are elected by the People's congresses of the municipal districts and counties through democratic consultation.
Beijing Municipal Government - The Beijing Municipal government is the executive organ of the Beijing People's Congress. Under the
leadership of the State Council, it exercises control over the administration of the whole municipality.
Beijing Subway Map:
Map of Beijing Subway with English name of each stop.
There are ten districts and eight counties under the jurisdiction of Beijing. There are Dongcheng, Xicheng, Chongwen, Xuanwu, Chaoyang, Haidian, Fengtai, Shijingshan, Mentougou and Fangshan Districts, as well as Changping, Shunyi, Tongxian, Daxing, Pinggu, Huairou, Miyun and Yanqing counties.
Unique Overall Advantages
On February 27, 1995, the State Council formally granted Beijing the privilege of enjoy all the preferential policies given to open coastal cities.
Beijing enjoys the following unique advantages and preferential conditions:
As China's political and cultural center, Beijing is very
influential politically, economically and socially. It is here that the
central government, and all ministries, departments and offices of the State Council exert their management power. It is also here that China conducts high-level political, economic, science and technological, and cultural exchanges with other countries of the world. To date, some 160
countries have set up embassies in Beijing. In addition, the city has
established the relationship of sister cities with 22 foreign cities.
Beijing is one of the Chinese cities that enjoys outstanding
geographical advantages in the wave of regional development. The pan-Bohai-Sea economic ring, consisting of the Liaodong Peninsula, the Shandong Peninsula, and Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei Province, boasts a solid industrial foundation, is rich in natural resources, and has a dense population and huge market potential. It's bound to become the
most active and influential area in China's future economic development. As a major metropolis in this economic ring, Beijing will act according to the overall planning of the State Council and unite with other provinces and cities in the ring to make due contributions to the country's economic development.
Beijing features a solid industrial foundation and strong
overall economic power. Since 1990, the GNP (gross national product) of the city has been steadily increasing at an annual rate of 11 %. In China, its overall economic power is next only to Shanghai. Its agricultural, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishery have been growing side by side. With it, the framework of a specialized, industrialized and modern agricultural base is forming. In addition, the city's secondary industry is consolidating, and it is undergoing strategic adjustment, which is orienting toward high and new technologies. In terms of the service industry, the sector now accounts for 47 % of the city's GNP and is getting more international and multi-functional.
Beijing is the location of the headquarters of the People's Bank of China, the central bank, as well as many other major financial and insurance institutions in China. The city plays a significant role in implementing the country's financial guidelines and policies, and in the decision-making and adjustment of the macro-economic policies. Consequently, the city has great attraction towards international capital and financial institutions. In the recent years, the city has witnessed a drastic boost in international financial sector. Among all Chinese cities, Beijing has the largest number of representative offices of foreign financial institutions. By the end of 1995, a total of 214 overseas financial institutions and organizations have set up representative offices. The figure accounts for half of the national
total of 519. Among the 214 offices, 45 are from Central America, 80 from Europe, and 89 from the Asia-Pacific region. Divided by different sectors, 112 offices - or 52.5 % of them - were set up by foreign banks; 63-or 29.4% - were set up by foreign insurance companies; 12-or 5.6 % of them - were set up by foreign security exchanges; and the remaining 17- or 7.9%-were set up by other financial institutions. So far, five foreign banks have established branches in Beijing. Except for the Japan Commercial Bank, which is still under preparation, the other four banks have started business in 1995. By the end of last year, the four branch offices have accumulated a total assets of US$400 million, their loans exceeding US$100 million. Presently, Beijing has been listed as a financial experimental open city. This status will accelerate the city's pace toward becoming an international financial metropolis.
Currently, Beijing is the country's largest science and
technological, and cultural hub. The region has more than 400 national
research institutes. The Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering Science has more than 400 academicians in Beijing. The city boasts more than 70 universities and colleges including the renowned Beijing University and Qinghua University. Each year, these institutions of higher learning groom more than 10,000 high-quality graduates. Among the city's 10.6 million population, 1.1 million have received university education. By the end of 1995, the city had 1.15 million technicians of different majors, among them 250,000 are in the field of science and technology. In 1995, the city carried out 13,000 research projects, promoted and applied more than 3,000 project results to use. Around the city, there are 56 technological transactions institutions. Last year, technologies worthy of 4.12 billion yuan exchanged hands here, and certificates were granted to 4,025 patents. Judging from the density of technological and educational facilities and the average ownership, Beijing is quite near internationally advanced
Beijing is also a Chinese city that attracts large amounts of
investment from transnational corporations. In the recent years, more and more transnational groups are choosing Beijing as the destination to establish Sino-foreign contractual joint ventures or their regional headquarters. Of the 270 transnational and world-renowned corporations that have invested in Beijing, 126 of them are among the world's top 500 industrial giants or service companies. So far, these companies have registered 5,600 representative offices in Beijing, representing more than 80 countries and regions, which is a first in China. All these have laid a solid foundation for the city's further opening up to the outside world.
Beijing abounds in tourism resources. The Capital International Airport, with 69 international air routes opened, connecting 56 large cities in 36 countries and regions, is a transition point and
communications hub of the country. In 1995, the passenger volume of the airport was 15.04 million person times. Once the expansion project now underway is completed, the annual passenger volume of the airport will soar to 35 million. Beijing is known to the world for its rich tourism resources. In 1995, the city received 2.07 million overseas tourists,
recouping a foreign exchange income of US$2.1 billion. The hosting of international meetings like the Fourth World Conference on Women has effectively raised Beijing's image and promoted the growth of the city's tourism industry.
Of all Chinese cities, Beijing boasts the most advanced infrastructure facilities. The city owns nearly 12,000 kilometers of standard urban-rural roads. The density of roads is 0.75 kilometers per square kilometer. In the city proper, there are 180 flyovers, and the Second Ring Road and the Third Ring Road have been built into non-stop
highways. The Beijing-Tianjin Expressway has cut down the trip from
Beijing to Tanggu Port to only 90 minutes. The recently completed
Beijing West Railway Station is reportedly the largest of its kind in Asia. Everything said, Beijing has become a central point for international post and telecommunications. Today, international calls can be made here to more than 200 countries and regions. Direct mail service has been established with 207 cities in more than 127 countries and regions worldwide. In addition, on May 8,1996, Beijing's telephones were upgraded from seven digits to eight. In terms of green coverage, the coverage rate is now 32.42%, with the per-capita greenland ownership up to 7.08 square meters. All forestry indexes have risen up to international standards.
On February 27, 1995, the State Council formally granted Beijing the privilege to enjoy all the preferential policies given to open coastal cities. The preferential policies related with foreign
- Starting from 1995, the enterprise income tax of foreign-
invested firms in manufacturing and in the jurisdiction of the Beijing
administrative region is lowered to the rate of 24 %.
- Foreign-invested firms in manufacturing, if they are located in old city quarters and are engaged in:
- technology-intensive or knowledge-intensive projects;
- projects with a foreign investment of more than US$30 million and with a long investment recoupment period;
- projects in energy, communications and port construction; with the approval of the State Administration of Taxation, their income tax rate is lowered to 15 %.
- Starting from February 27, 1995, pre-paid income tax in the
jurisdiction of the Beijing administrative region is lowered to the rate of 10 %.