A Report on China's Hospital System

and Medical Equipment Market

Contents

1 China's Public Health System

1.1 Administrative System for Hospitals

1.1.1 Three levels

1.1.2 Five Categories

1.2 Ministry Of Health Of China

1.2.1 Minister and vice ministers

1.2.2 Functions of the Ministry

1.2.3 Departments of the Ministry

1.2.4 Key Decision-makers of the Ministry

1.3 Provincial Health Bureaus and Key Decision -Makers

1.4 State Drug Administration

1.4.1 Director and deputy directors

1.4.2 Functions

1.4.3 Departments

1.4.4 Key Decision-makers

1.5 Financial Sources And Expenditures Of China's Health System

1.6 Urban Medical Services

1.6.1 Free Medical Care System

1.6.2 New Medical Insurance System for Urban Areas

1.7 Rural Medical Care System

1.7.1 Three-level Network

1.7.2 Rural Medical Service System

1.8 Private Medical Cares

1.9 Medical Education

1.9.1 Medical Training Center

1.9.2 Secondary Medical Schools

1.9.3 Higher Medical Schools

1.9.4 Medical Research Institutes and Associations

1.10 Red Cross Society in the health system

1.11 Major Statistics of China's Health System

1.11.1 Health Care Institutions

1.11.2 Personnel Working in Health Care Institutions

1.11.3 Number of Beds in Health Care Institutions

1.11.4 Health Care Institutions, Beds & Personnel by Type of Institutions

1.11.5 Death Rate of 10 Major Diseases in Rural Areas

1.11.6 Death Rate of 10 Major Diseases in Urban Areas

1.11.7 Developments in Public Health in 1998

2 China's Medical Equipment Market

3 Distribution System For Medical Equipment

3.1 Distribution Channels For Domestic Products

3.2 Distribution Channels For Imported Products

4 Importation of Medical Equipment

4.1 Import Value And Volume From 1996 To 1998

4.1.1 Total Import Value From 1996 To 1998

4.1.2 Import Value And Volume by Countries in 1996

4.1.3 Import Value And Volume by Countries in 1997

4.1.4 Import Value And Volume by Countries in 1998

4.2 China's Major Medical Equipment Importers In 1998

4.2.1 Top Five Importers for Medical Equipment with H.S. Code of 9018

4.2.2 Top Five Importers for Medical Equipment with H.S. Code of 9019

4.2.3 Top Five Importers for Medical Equipment with H.S. Code of 9021

4.2.4 Top Five Importers for Medical Equipment with H.S. Code of 9022

4.2.5 Contact Details of China's Top Medical Equipment Importers

5 Tariffs And Non-Tariff Controls on Importation of Medical Equipment

6 List of selected 1,000 Hospitals

Tables and Figures

Table 1 Key Decision-makers of Ministry of Health of China

Table 2 Key Decision-makers of Provincial Health Bureaus

Table 3 Key Decision-makers of the State Drug Administration

Table 4 Total income of hospitals

Table 5 The Forecast of National Health Expenditure (NHE) Tendency

Table 6 Payment for Medical Expenses

Table 7 Private Medical Cares

Table 8 Health Care Institutions

Table 9 Personnel Working in Health Care Institutions

Table 10 Number of Beds in Health Care Institutions

Table 11 Health Care Institutions, Beds & Personnel by Type of Institutions in 1997

Table 12 Death Rate of 10 Major Diseases in Rural Areas ( 1997 )

Table 13 Death Rate of 10 Major Diseases in Urban Areas ( 1997 )

Table 14 detailed items of imported medical equipment

Table 15 Total Import Value From 1996 To 1998

Table 16 Top Five Importers for Medical Equipment with H.S. Code of 9018

Table 17 Top Five Importers for Medical Equipment with H.S. Code of 9019

Table 18 Top Five Importers for Medical Equipment with H.S. Code of 9021

Table 19 Top Five Importers for Medical Equipment with H.S. Code of 9022

Table 20 Contact Details of China's Top Medical Equipment Importers

Figure 1 Military hospital System

Figure 2 Source of new social medical care insurance system 1

Figure 3 Source of new social medical care insurance system 2

Figure 4 Distribution Channels For Domestic Products

Figure 5 Distribution Channels For Imported Products

Figure 6 Total Import Value From 1996 To 1998

The Report on China's

Hospital System and Medical Equipment Market

1 China's Public Health System

1.1 Administrative System for Hospitals

 

1.1.1 Three levels

China's healthy care institutions are managed according their grades. Ministry of Health (MOH) leads the healthy work of the whole nation, and responsible for formulating healthy regulation and policy as well as state program of healthy undertakings.

Local Health Bureaus of provincial governments and county governments are responsible for healthy work belonging to oneself region, and report regularly conditions of healthy reform and development to local People's Congress.

MOH began to formulate and issue judging and examining regulations of managing hospitals according to their grades in 1993, and at present China has possessed 29 ^Committees of Judging and Examining on Hospital ̄ in grades of province, and they have judged and examined 17,708 hospitals, of which Class A hospitals take 56.79 percent.

1.1.2 Five Categories

Chinese Hospitals can be classified into following five kinds:

  1. Hospitals of public health system

    Including the hospitals under the leadership of Ministry of Health or Health Bureaus of local governments at provincial or county level.

  2. Military hospitals

Including the hospitals belonging directly to Health Department of General Logistics Department of PLA; the hospitals belonging to military areas, and the hospitals belonging to Armed Police.

The quantity of big sized multipurpose military hospital (over 300 beds) have got up to 150, which all passed through the national grading evaluation.

PLA has four military medical universities, one advanced medical college and 10 higher professional schools of medical education.

The structure of military hospitals please see following chart.

Figure 1 Military hospital System

Figure 1 Military hospital System

  1. Hospitals funded by Ministries

    The hospitals founded and managed by Ministries or State Bureaus of metallurgy, electricity, machinery, aviation, post and telecommunication, nuclear industry, coal , civil affairs and etc.

  2. Private, share holdings and Sino-foreign J.V. hospitals

  3. Hospitals affiliated to medical education and research institutes

1.2 Ministry Of Health Of China

 

1.2.1 Minister and vice ministers

Minister: Zhang Wenkang

Vice Ministers: Wang Longde, Yin Dakui, Cao Ronggui, Peng Yu,

Zhu Qingsheng

Number of Stuff: 225

Address: No.44 Houhai Beiyan, Xicheng District, Beijing

Phone: 8610-64076100

Fax: 8610-64012369

Post Code: 100725

 

1.2.2 Functions of the Ministry

    >

  1. Studying and promulgating laws, regulations as well as policies of guiding line in healthy work; setting up the strategically target in healthy undertaking; enacting technical standards and healthy standards.

  2. Studying and making plans and policies for development of regional health, rural health and maternity and child care; adjusting the distribution of resources;

  3. Enacting the preventive treatment project of disease; organizing integrated control of important disease; publishing the name list of infectious disease of quarantine and monitoring infectious disease.

  4. Directing the reform of medical organizations, enacting standards of profession and the standards of medical service quality.

  5. Supervising and managing blood collection.

  6. Studying and drawing up the developing project of medical science and technology.

  7. Supervising and managing the preventive care of infections disease; enacting the quality standards for foods and cosmetic products.

  8. Enacting the developing project of healthy experts training; drawing up the organizational standards for healthy organizations and the standards for medical worker qualifications.

  9. Organizing and directing the international cooperation in public health areas.

  10. Controlling the spreading of rapidly happened epidemic disease.

 

  1.2.3 Departments of the Ministry

  1. General Office
  2. Human Resources Bureau
  3. Planning and Finance Bureau
  4. Public Health Regulatory Bureau
  5. Maternity and Child Care Bureau
  6. Public Health Institutions Administrative Bureau
  7. Diseases Prevention and Control Bureau
  8. Science, Technology and Education Bureau
  9. International Cooperation Bureau

 

 

1.2.4 Key Decision-makers of the Ministry

 

Table 1 Key Decision-makers of Ministry of Health of China

Name

Position

Department

Phone Number

Zhang Wenkang

Minister

 

64018645

Wang Longde

Vice-Minister

 

64012330

Yin Dakui

Vice-Minister

 

64012371

Cao Ronggui

Vice-Minister

 

64033120

Peng Yu

Vice-Minister

 

64015651

Zhu Qingsheng

Vice-Minister

 

64012358

Li Hongshan

Deputy Director

General Office

64076800

Liu Xinming

Director

Planning and Finance Bureau

64011602

Qi Xiaoqiu

Director

Public Health Regulatory Bureau

64074620

Li Changming

Director

Maternity and Child Care Bureau

64015611

Wu Mingjiang

Director

Public Health Institutions Administrative Bureau

64012889

Wang Zhao

Director

Diseases Prevention and Control Bureau

64015605

Qi Guoming

Director

Science, Technology and Education Bureau

64033114

 

 

1.3 Provincial Health Bureaus and Key Decision -Makers

 

Table 2 Key Decision-makers of Provincial Health Bureaus

Provincial Health Bureau

Director

Address

Post Code

Phone Number

Beijing

Zhu Zonghan

No.2 Huaibaishu St. Xuanwu District, Beijing

100053

010 63039025

Tianjin

Zhang Yu

No.98 Nanjing Rd. Heping District, Tianjin

300040

020 23317527

Shanghai

Liu Jun

Hankou Rd. Shanghai

200002

021 63212410 - 205

Hebei

Hu Jingran

No.6 Hezuo Rd. Shijiazhuang, Hebei

050051

0311 7045942

Shanxi

Zhao Zhenhuan

No.23 Donghuamen, Taiyuan City, Shanxi

030013

0351 3070951

Inner Mongolian

Hasi Bagen

No.6 East Zhongshan Rd. Hohhot, Inner Mongolian

010020

0471 6925678

Liaoning

Ma Xiaowei

No.82 South Heping St. Shenyang City, Liaoning

110005

024 23389499

Jilin

Chi Daming

No.47 Sidalin Dajie, Changchun City, Jilin

130051

0431 2725699

Heilongjiang

Song Zhaojin

No.47 Minyi St. Harbin City, Heilongjiang

150001

0451 3637310

Jiangsu

Zhou Min

No.42 Zhongyang Rd. Nanjing City, Jiangsu

210008

020 3374343

Zhejiang

Li Lanjuan

No.634 Qinggongchun Rd. Hangzhou City, Zhejiang

310006

0571 7077551

Anhui

Dai Guangqiang

No.85 Changjiang Rd. Hefei City, Anhui

230001

0551 2601937

Fujian

He Ming

No.61 Guping Rd. Fuzhou City, Fujian

350003

0591 7853183

Jiangxi

Zhou Biao

No.2 Beijing Rd. Nanchang City, Jiangxi

330046

0791 6213595

Shandong

Wang Tianrui

No.1 East Qingnian Rd. Jinan City, Shandong

250011

0531 2956921 - 2803

Henan

Liu Quanxi

No.45 Weiwu Rd. Zhengzhou City, Henan

450003

0371 5953488

Hubei

Wang Zongxian

No.165 Donghu Rd. Wuchang, Wuhan City, Hubei

430077

027 87821791

Hunan

Zeng Fanyou

No.16 Beizhan Rd. Changsha City, Hunan

410008

0731 4471720

Guangdong

Huang Qingdao

No.17 South Xianlie Rd. Guangzhou City, Guangdong

510060

020 83820675

Guangxi

Wang Rongci

No.35 Taoyuan Rd. Nanning City, Guangxi

530021

0771 2800430

Hainan

Jian Liangsheng

No.42 Haifu Rd. Haikou City, Hainan

570203

0898 5340207

Chongqing

Li Xianglong

No.234 Renmin Rd. Yuzhong District, Chongqing

400015

023 63852716

Sichuan

Zhuo Kaixing

No.80 West Wenmiao St. Chengdu City, Sichuan

610041

028 6646924

Guizhou

Li Jiahu

Bldg.5 Province Government, Bageyan, Guiyang City, Guizhou

560004

0851 6860374

Yunnan

Yao Huibin

Bldg.2 East, Wuhuashan, Kunming City, Yunnan

650021

0871 3137492

Tibet

Tudeng

No.248 West Beijing Rd. Lasa City, Tibet

850000

0891 6836631

Shaanxi

Liu Aimei

No.34 Lianhu Rd. Xi'an City, Shaanxi

710003

029 7319392

Gansu

Liang Shizhang

No.63 Changjia Xiang, Chengguan District, Lanzhou City, Gansu

730030

0931 8825811

Qinghai

Yu Lixuan

No.66 West St. Xining City, Qinghai

810000

0971 8233739

Ningxia

Ma Yuzhang

No.37 Jiefang Dajie, Yinchuan City, Ningxia

750001

0951 6042221

Xinjiang

Yasen Tuersun

No.66 Longersi, Urumqi City, Xingjiang

830001

0991 2824211

 

1.4 State Drug Administration

1.4.1 Director and deputy directors

Director: Zheng Xiaoyu

Deputy Directors: Shao Mingli, Ren Dequan

Number of Stuff: 120

Address: 38A, Beilishi Rd. Xicheng District, Beijing

Phone: 8610-68316825

Fax: 8610-68310909

Post Code: 100810

 

1.4.2 Functions

The State Drug Administration is responsible for administrative supervision and technological supervision of the R&D, production, distribution and application of medicines (including Chinese traditional medicine, chemical materials and their preparations, antibiotics, bio-chemical medicines, biological products, diagnostic agents, radioactive medicines, narcotic medicines, toxic medicines, psychiatric medicines, medical apparatuses and instruments, hygienic materials and medicine packaging materials, etc.). Its main responsibilities are as follows:

  1. Formulation and revision of laws and regulations on administration of medicines and supervision of their implementation.

  2. Formulation, revision and promulgation of legal standards of medicines and formulation of the State's basic medicines catalogue.

  3. Registration of new medicines, imitated production of medicines, importation of medicines and protection of varieties of Chinese herb medicines. Organization for establishment of the non-prescription medicine system and examination and promulgation of the non-prescription medicine catalogue. Re-evaluation of medicines, monitoring and testing of negative reactions and the examination and approval of clinical experiments, clinical pharmacological bases and medicines to be weeded out.

  4. Formulation, revision and promulgation (being authorized) of legal standards of medical apparatus and instruments and formulation of classified products catalogues for administration; registration of imported medical apparatuses and instruments as well as clinical experiment bases; issuing registration certificates and production permits for medical apparatuses and instruments. Certification of quality systems and products safety for medical apparatuses and instruments.

  5. Formulation and revision of administrative specifications of medicines production quality, operation quality, and the management of preparations of medical institutions, and supervision of their implementation.

  6. Formulation and revision of administrative specifications of non-clinical research quality and clinical experiment quality and supervision of their implementation.

  7. Supervision, testing and sample-testing the quality of medicine production and operation and the quality of medicines of medical institutions and issuing the State's Bulletin of Medicine Quality, as well as punishing those who produce and sell spurious and poor medicines for administration of the market of Chinese herbs medicines.

  8. Examination of medicines advertisement, administrative protection of medicines and giving instructions to medicine-inspection agencies of the country as a whole.

  9. Supervision and administration of narcotic medicines, psychiatric medicines, and radioactive medicines, as well as special medicines and apparatuses.

  10. Implementing the authentication system for medicines wholesale and retail business and formulation of rules for buy and sale of prescription medicines, non-prescription medicines, Chinese traditional medicine crops and Chinese medicine material, crude slices.

  11. Formulation of qualification system for practicing pharmacists (incl. Practicing pharmacists of Chinese medicines) and giving directives for examination and registration of practicing pharmacists (incl. Pharmacists of Chinese medicine).

  12. Carrying out the State's policy on the medicine industry in coordination with macro-controlling organs by means of administration and supervision.

  13. Organization and direction of exchange and cooperation with foreign governments and international organizations in the aspects of medicines administration and supervision.

 

1.4.3 Departments

  1. General Office

  2. Medicines Registration Bureau

  3. Medical Equipment Bureau

  4. Safety Supervision Bureau

  5. Market Supervision Bureau

  6. Human Resource Bureau

  7. International Cooperation Bureau

 

1.4.4 Key Decision-makers

Table 3 Key Decision-makers of the State Drug Administration

Name

Position

Department

Phone Number

Zheng Xiaoyu

Director

State Drug Administration

68313344ext 0902

Shao Mingli

Deputy Director

State Drug Administration

ext 0601

Ren Dequan

Deputy Director

State Drug Administration

ext 0905

Cao Wenzhuang

Director

General Office

ext 0909

Zhang Shiju

Director

Medicines Registration Bureau

ext 0401

Hao Heping

Director

Medical Equipment Bureau

ext 0805

Bai Huiliang

Director

Safety Supervision Bureau

ext 0601

Li Jun

Director

Market Supervision Bureau

ext 0701

 

1.5 Financial Sources And Expenditures Of China's Health System

From beginning of 1950s, China established a free medical care system. The system was composed of two parts:

  1. Free Medical Treatment System

The system provides free medical care for all government officials, stuff working for administrative institutions, as well as disabled servicemen, and university students. Approximately 40 millions of people enjoy the system. Government expended approximately RMB 11 billions yuan (US$ 1.31 billion ) in 1995. The funds came from government financial allocations.

2. The Medical Insurance System

The system provides medical insurance for 140 million workers of state-owned enterprises. Expenditure for the system was approximately RMB 46.6 billion yuan (US$5.58 million) in 1995. And the funds were expended from enterprises' welfare funds.

The government's financial allocations and enterprises' welfare fund expended for medical insurance were major income sources of Chinese hospitals.

Following table shows the total income of hospitals.

Table 4 Total income of hospitals

Year

Income in RMB billion yuan

Income in US$ billion

1992

Approximately 37.2

6.750

1993

Approximately 46.0

7.986

1994

Approximately 55.8

6.248

1995

Approximately 57.6

6.898

Source: Ministry of Health of China

The Tendency of National Health Expenditure (NHE)

World Bank have invited some specialists to forest China's NHE. They forecast that NHE would make up 5 percent of GDP till 2010 and make up 7 percent of GDP till 2030.

China Health Economy Network estimated that NHE would make up 4.1 percent of GDP up to year 2000, 6.6 percent to 2010, 12 percent to 2020 and 24 percent to 2030.

About tendency of NHE in near future, China NHE Forecasting Group believes that the proportion of NHE will make up 4.2 percent of GDP up to year 2000 and approximate 5 percent up to 2010. In near future, the proportion of NHE making up GDP will not increase rapidly, There is less possible that the proportion of making up GDP gets to 5 percent.

It is believed that the ratio between NHE and GDP would continually increase to high degree from now till five years later, and will get to 4.3 percent up to year 2000.

Table 5 The Forecast of National Health Expenditure (NHE) Tendency

Unit: percent of GDP

Forecaster

year 2000

year 2010

year2020

year

2030

World Bank

 

5

 

7

China Health Economy Network (option 1)

4.1

6.6

12

24

China Health Economy Network (option 2)

3.1

6.2

 

8.8

China NHE Forecasting Group

4.2

5

   

Source: Ministry of Health of China

 

 

1.6 Urban Medical Services

1.6.1 Free Medical Care System

Since 1952, following urban people can enjoy free medical care or medical insurance:

people working in all-level governments, democratic parties, people's organizations, institutions of cultural, education, scientific research, health; retired people, disabled servicemen, university and college students, and workers working in state-owned enterprises.

However, Registration fee, nutrient medicine fee, and plastic surgery fee are not covered in the free medical care system.

Expenses for medical care are from the government financial budget.

1.6.2 New Medical Insurance System for Urban Areas

Since 1994 China has been carrying on a reform for its free medical care system. According to the new system, medical expenses will be shared by both employers and employees.

Enterprises or employers will contribute 10 percent of the entire staff's salaries for social medical care insurance. Of which, five percent will deposit into employees' personal medical care accounts. The rest five percent will be set aside as ^Social Overall Medical Funds ̄ .

Employees will have to pay one percent of their monthly salaries into their personal medical care accounts.

Following figure shows the source of new social medical care insurance system.

Figure 2 Source of new social medical care insurance system 1

Figure 2. Source of new social medical care insurance system 1

When medical costs for a person are less than five percent of the patient's average annual income, the money will be subtracted from that person's medical care accounts.

The Social Overall Medical Funds, the pool of money jointly created by the employer and employee, will pay 80- 90 percent of medical expenses when they exceed five per cent of that person's average annual income, but less then RMB 5,000 yuan. The country's average annual income for urban employee was 6,470 yuan (US$780) in 1997.

The Social Overall Medical Funds will pay 90-92 percent of medical expenses, in case the expenses exceeding RMB 5,000 yuan but less than 10,000 yuan; and 98 percent if expenses exceeding RMB 10,000 yuan.

The funds will not pay the bill if the expense goes beyond four times that of the local annual average income in case of serious illness, and patients will have to turn to commercial medical insurance. Details please see following table.

Table 6 Payment for Medical Expenses

 

Personal Medical Expenses Range

Personal Medical Care Account

Social Overall Medical Funds

less than 5 percent of the patient's average annual income

100%

 

exceeding 5 per cent of that person's average annual income, but less then RMB 5,000 yuan

10 - 20 %

80 - 90 %

exceeding RMB 5,000 yuan but less than 10,000 yuan

8 - 10 %

90 - 92 %

exceeding RMB 10,000 yuan, but less than four times that of the local annual average income

2%

98%

 

 

The new medical insurance system will cover all of the country's 150 million urban employees.

The new medical insurance system, with a change in the rate of employers and employees' contribution to Social Overall Medical Funds and personal medical care account, will be standardized at city and county levels in 1999.

Of 1999 scheme, employees shall pay two percent of their salary to their personal medical care account, and employers shall contribute 6 percent of the entire staff's salaries for social medical care insurance. Of which, the percentage of money deposited into employees' account shall be determined by local government. Details please see following figure.

Figure 3 Source of new social medical care insurance system 2

Figure 3. Source of new social medical care insurance system 2

1.7 Rural Medical Care System

1.7.1 Three-level Network

With 900 million people in rural areas, China places great emphasis on rural medical and health work. In rural areas, a 3-level network is formed: at county, township, and village levels.

County-level: general hospitals, health and anti-epidemic stations, Chinese traditional medicine hospitals, maternity and child health centers, medical service stations, and clinics.

Township-level: medical service in health care, anti-epidemic, maternity and child health service, family planning stations.

Village-level: medical stations -grassroots operation, staffed by village doctors, to provide services to villagers.

Rural networks provide training to the staff, organize public health campaigns and surveys.

1.7.2 Rural Medical Service System

It is operated on the principle of voluntary participation as part of the project ^Health for All by 2000 ̄ launched by the Ministry of Public Health.

It is a collectively-funded rural medical services system for China's 900 million farmers, and will be offered in 50 to 60 percent of the counties in the next few years.

World Health Organization has pledged US$350,000 for the program.

Each village is required to contribute a set amount to the local clinic each year, then villagers will be treated free of charge or have part of their medical expenses reimbursed.

1.8 Private Medical Cares

There were more than 120,000 private medical care institutions in China, and most of them are small-sized.

 

Table 7 Private Medical Cares

Year

Private Medical Care Institutions

Employee in Private Medical Care Institutions

 

Number

Percentage of National Total

Number

Percentage of National Total

1997

125,264

39.8

161,465

2.92

1998

126,068

40.1

164,727

3.73

Source: Ministry of Health of China

 

1.9 Medical Education

China's medical education is organized at four levels: junior, secondary, higher, and advanced education in Western medicine and Chinese traditional medicine

1.9.1 Medical Training Center

The State has set up a Chinese medical training center for village doctors nationwide. Medium-level certificates are issued to those who have completed 2-year correspondence education.

Training is designed for off-work classes and on-job training. And there are now 723,000 village doctors and 982,000 midwives and medical workers in the countryside.

1.9.2 Secondary Medical Schools

There are 554 secondary medical schools, with an enrollment of 94,000, offering 3-year or 4-year courses. 83 kinds of text books are compiled and in use now.

1.9.3 Higher Medical Schools

There are 135 medical colleges with an annual enrollment of 45,000, bringing the total number of students in these schools to l97,000. And 11 of the colleges are under the direct supervision of the Ministry of Public Health. The length of courses extend from 3 years up to 8 years in different majors.

Major medical institutes:

Beijing Medical Science Institute

1.9.4 Medical Research Institutes and Associations

(1) China Medicine Association

Add: 4 East Yinghua Road, Chaoyang District,

Beijing 100029, China

Tel: (8610) 64218316, 64212828

(2) Academy of Chinese Traditional Medicine

Add: 18 North Xicang, Dongzhimennei,

Beijing 100700, China

Tel: ( Acupuncture Institute) (8610) 64032682

( Chinese Traditional Medicine Institute) (8610) 64032658

(3) Medical Information Institute

Add: 3 Yabao Road, Chaoyang District,

Beijing 100020, China

Tel: (8610) 65127776

(4) Basic Medical Institute

Add: 3 Dongdan Santiao, Dongcheng District,

Beijing 100005, China

Tel: (8610) 65134466

(5) Zhonghua Medical Society

Add: 42 West St., Dongsi, Dongcheng District,

Beijing 100710, China

Tel: (8610) 65133311

(6) Shonghua Prevention Medical Society

Add: 11 Xiyuanli, Chaoyang District,

Beijing 100027, China

Tel: (8610) 64654109

(7) Beijing Chinese Traditional and Western Medicine Society

Add: 7 Dongdan Santiao, Dongcheng District,

Beijing 100005, China

Tel: (8610) 65250460

(8) Beijing Chinese Traditional Medicine Society

Add: 7 Dongdan Santiao, Dongcheng District,

Beijing 100005, China

Tel: (8610) 65256418

 

1.10 Red Cross Society in the health system

China Red Cross Society

Honorary Chairman: Jiang Zemin

Chairman: Qian Zhengying

Vice Chairman: Zhang Wenkang, Pengyu

Add: 53 Ganmian Hutong, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100010, China

Tel: (8610) 65124447

1.11 Major Statistics of China's Health System

1.11.1 Health Care Institutions

 

Table 8 Health Care Institutions

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

Total

209036

204787

193586

191742

190057

188803

315033

Hospitals

63101

61352

60784

67857

67807

67964

67911

of which at and above county level

13638

13917

14713

14762

14771

15056

15219

Sanitarium

642

639

600

587

582

528

506

Clinics

128665

125873

115161

105984

104406

103472

229474

Specialized stations

1818

1845

1872

1905

1895

1887

1893

Sanitation and disease control stations

3652

3673

3609

3611

3629

3635

3619

Maternity and child care centers

2854

2841

2791

2857

2832

2764

2748

Medicines and chemical reagent test labs

1927

1953

1976

1990

1995

2000

2014

Medical science institutions

335

339

436

437

427

427

426

Other institutions

6042

6272

6357

6514

6484

6126

6442

Source: China Statistical Yearbook

 

1.11.2 Personnel Working in Health Care Institutions

Table 9 Personnel Working in Health Care Institutions

Unit : 1000 people

 

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

Total

5025

5140

5215

5307

5373

5419

5516

Medical technical personnel

3985

4074

4117

4199

4257

4312

4398

Doctors

1780

1808

1832

1882

1918

1941

1985

Traditional Chinese medicine

363

364

358

361

358

348

346

Western medicine, senior

1065

1079

1115

1159

1186

1207

1236

Western medicine, junior

347

360

351

354

365

375

392

Senior and junior nurses

1012

1040

1056

1094

1126

1163

1198

Doctors per 1,000 persons

15.4

15.4

15.5

15.7

15.8

15.9

16.1

Source: China Statistical Yearbook

1.11.3 Number of Beds in Health Care Institutions

 

Table 10 Number of Beds in Health Care Institutions

Unit: 1000 unit
 

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

Total

2992

3049

309.9

3134

3141

3100

3135

Hospitals

2689

2744

2795

2831

2836

2866

2903

of which at and above county level

1901

1953

2017

2051

2053

2083

2109

Sanitarium

125

125

119

118

116

109

104

Other health care institutions

178

180

185

184

188

125

128

Hospital beds per 1,000 persons (unit)

2.32

2.34

2.36

2.36

2.34

2.34

235

Source: China Statistical Yearbook

1.11.4 Health Care Institutions, Beds & Personnel by Type of Institutions

Table 11 Health Care Institutions, Beds & Personnel by Type of Institutions in 1997

Type

Institutions

Beds (1000)

Personnel (1000 persons)

     

Total

Medical tech. personnel

Managerial personnel

Total

315033

3135

5516

4398

448

Total number of hospitals

16376

2154

3067

2378

266

Hospitals at and above county level

15219

2109

3005

2330

260

General hospitals

10789

1486

2146

1672

180

Hospitals of Chinese medicine

2424

224

339

272

29

Hospitals attached to medical colleges

220

123

208

197

18

Infectious disease hospitals

120

25

29

20

3

Metal hospitals

485

98

71

50

8

Tuberculosis hospitals

99

25

23

16

3

Hospitals for maternity and child care

432

34

65

51

6

Children's hospitals

36

10

19

14

2

Hospitals for lepers

48

9

3

2

 

Hospitals for occupational diseases

46

7

7

5

1

Tumor hospitals

61

17

23

16

2

Other specialized hospitals

459

52

75

15

8

Rural township hospitals

51535

749

1131

991

76

Sanitariums

506

104

48

24

8

Clinics

229474

26

574

561

7

Specialized stations

1893

31

61

46

7

Tuberculosis prevention stations

606

4

17

13

2

Occupational diseases prevention stations

99

3

6

4

1

Sanitation and disease control stations

4012

1

219

173

2

Maternity and child care centers

2748

26

87

71

8

Medicine and chemical reagent test labs

2014

 

26

19

4

Institutions of medical sciences

426

6

35

20

5

Other health care institutions

6049

37

269

   

Source: China Statistical Yearbook

1.11.5 Death Rate of 10 Major Diseases in Rural Areas

Table 12 Death Rate of 10 Major Diseases in Rural Areas ( 1997 )

Rank

Cause of death

% of total death

 

Total

91.76

1

Malignant tumor

22.71

2

Cerebrovascular disease

22.63

3

Heart trouble

16.77

4

Respiratory disease

14.09

5

Trauma and toxicosis

6.18

6

Digestive disease

6.10

7

Internal system, nutrition, metabolite and immunity disease

2.66

8

Urinary disease

1.49

9

Mental disease

1.16

10

Infectious disease (excluding pulmonary tuberculosis)

0.97

     
 

Total of male

92.62

1

Malignant tumor

25.45

2

Cerebrovascular disease

22.33

3

Heart trouble

15.45

4

Respiratory disease

13.53

5

Trauma and toxicosis

7.05

6

Digestive disease

3.41

7

Internal system, nutrition, metabolite and immunity disease

1.99

8

Urinary disease

1.42

9

Mental disease

1.00

10

Infectious disease (excluding pulmonary tuberculosis)

0.99

     
 

Total of female

90.68

1

Cerebrovascular disease

23.00

2

Malignant tumor

19.31

3

Respiratory disease

18.41

4

Heart trouble

14.78

5

Respiratory disease

5.09

6

Trauma and toxicosis

3.48

7

Digestive disease

2.72

8

Urinary disease

1.58

9

Mental disease

1.37

10

Neuropathy

0.94

Source: China Statistical Yearbook

 

1.11.6 Death Rate of 10 Major Diseases in Urban Areas

 

Table 13 Death Rate of 10 Major Diseases in Urban Areas ( 1997 )

Rank

Cause of death

% of total death

 

Total

91.31

1

Cerebrovascular disease

22.28

2

Malignant tumor

21.66

3

Heart trouble

16.37

4

Respiratory disease

15.28

5

Trauma and toxicosis

6.52

6

Digestive disease

3.22

7

Internal system , nutrition, metabolite and immunity disease

2.51

8

Urinary disease

1.51

9

Mental disease

1.12

10

Neuropathy

0.84

     
 

Total of male

92.33

1

Malignant tumor

24.45

2

Cerebrovascular disease

22.09

3

Heart trouble

14.99

4

Respiratory disease

14.61

5

Trauma and toxicosis

7.43

6

Digestive disease

3.53

7

Internal system , nutrition, metabolite and immunity disease

1.87

8

Urinary disease

1.44

9

Mental disease

0.97

10

Infectious disease (excluding pulmonary tuberculosis)

0.95

     
 

Total of female

90.16

1

Cerebrovascular disease

22.51

2

Malignant tumor

18.25

3

Heart trouble

18.06

4

Respiratory disease

16.09

5

Trauma and toxicosis

5.41

6

Internal system , nutrition, metabolite and immunity disease

3.29

7

Digestive disease

2.84

8

Urinary disease

1.59

9

Mental disease

1.31

10

Neuropathy

0.81

Source: China Statistical Yearbook

1.11.7 Developments in Public Health in 1998

By the end of 1998, there were 310,000 health care institutions (including clinics), with a total of 3.14 million beds, 2.91 million of which in hospitals and health-care stations. There were 4.42 million health workers in China, including 1.41 million doctors in hospitals and health-care stations, and 1.07 million senior and junior nurses. China also had 5,907 anti-epidemic and disease prevention stations employing 220,000 health workers, and 2,724 maternal and child health-care institutions employing 73,000 health workers. Health service network was strengthened and improved at county, township and village levels, and over 75 percent of all counties fulfilled targets in the rural primary health care program. There were 50,000 health-care institutions at township level in rural areas, with 740,000 beds and 1,000,000 health workers. Rural villages with medical-care stations made up 89.5 percent of all villages in China, employing 1,330,000 rural doctors and health workers.

 

2 China's Medical Equipment Market

According to an estimation made by experts with MOH, China has more than 3,000 manufacturers producing about 47 categories 11,000 kinds of medical equipment. Total output value of medical equipment in 1997 was RMB 9.65 billion yuan (US$ 1.16 billion). The total sales revenue of medical equipment in 1998 reached RMB 12.3 billion yuan (US$ 1.49 billion), with annually increase rate about 30 percent. Some experts even predict that the market capacity for medical equipment will be RMB 35 billion yuan (US$ 4.24 billion) in year 2000.

The fastest development of 10 apparatus in the late decade of China are as followings:

1. Ultrasonic detector

2. CT detector

3. NMR detector

4. Linac

5. Ultrasonic vertical hydrotherapic equipment

6. Neuropotential diagnostic system

7. Positron dislocation scanning detector

8. X scalpel

9. Gamma scalpel

10. Gamma Cameras

General trends of market projection in 1996-2000

The market of China's principal medical instruments and equipment is in an elevating trends. The main reasons are:

  1. There are some 310,000 medical institutions in China. Of these, equipment of 15 percent is produced in 60s-70s, which needs update.

  1. Number of hospitals is increasing.

  1. The continuous progress and development of medical and health course and clinical medical technology demands that new medical instruments should be equipped for clinical utilization.

  1. To reach the goal of the project ^Health for All by 2000 ̄ launched by the Ministry

of Public Health, hospitals and clinics in rural areas are required to equipped with

laboratory test apparatus, small-sized Ultrasonic detectors, small-sized X-ray

equipment, dental equipment, small-sized high pressure sterilizing apparatus, and

etc.

5. The most prospective varieties in the market will be:

3 Distribution System For Medical Equipment

 

3.1 Distribution Channels For Domestic Products

Basically medical equipment manufacturers sell their products to hospitals through their agencies. There are two types of agencies in China, authorized agencies (by MOH or provincial health bureaus) and non-authorized agencies.

Forty large-sized hospitals directly under the leadership of MOH, Sino-foreign JV Hospitals, private hospitals, and hospitals affiliated to medical education institutes can purchase medical equipment directly from manufacturers or their agencies.

For State-owned hospitals under provincial health bureaus, they must purchase equipment from authorized agencies on the fund of government financial allocation; while they can purchase their equipment from non-authorized agencies or form manufacturers on their own funded money.

Following chart shows the distribution channels for domestic made medical equipment.

 

 

Figure 4 Distribution Channels For Domestic Products

Figure 4.  Distribution Channels  For Domestic Products

3.2 Distribution Channels For Imported Products

Medical equipment importation is a monopoly trade in China. Importer must be approved by the related governmental body. At present, there are more than 1000 approved importers in which China Medicine & Health Care Im/Ex Corp and its provincial subsidiaries are the major importers of medical equipment. These importers sell the products to the end users. Hospitals must purchase the medical equipment they need from the companies approved by the government.

The large-sized hospitals directly under the Ministry of Health, hospitals affiliated to medical education and research institutes, Sino-foreign JV hospitals and private owned hospitals can import medical equipment directly from abroad for their own use, but is not allowed to resale and retail.

Following chart shows the distribution channels for imported medical equipment.

 

 

Figure 5 Distribution Channels For Imported Products

Figure 5. Distribution Channels For Imported  Products

4 Importation of Medical Equipment

In China, the imported medical equipment can be divided into following four major categories with 39 detailed H.S. codes:

Following table shows detailed items of imported medical equipment under 39 H.S. Codes.

 

Table 14 detailed items of imported medical equipment

Items

H.S. Code

Description of Equipment

1

90181100

Electrocardiographs

2

90181210

B-ultrasonic diagnostic equipment

3

90181290

Other Ultrasonic scanning apparatus

4

90181300

Magnetic resonance imaging apparatus

5

90181400

Scintigraphic apparatus

6

90181930

Patient monitors

7

90181990

Other electro-diagnostic apparatus

8

90182000

Ultra-violet or infra-red ray apparatus

9

90183100

Syringes, with or without needles

10

90183210

Tubular metal needles

11

90183220

needles for sutures

12

90183900

Other Syringes, needles, catheters, cannulae and the like

13

90184100

Dental drill engines, whether or Not combined on a single base with Other Dental equipment

14

90184910

Dentists' chairs incorporating dental equipment

15

90184990

Other instruments and appliances, used in dental sciences

16

90185000

Other ophthalmic instruments and appliances

17

90189010

Stethoscopes

18

90189020

Sphygmomanometers

19

90189030

Endoscopes

20

90189040

Artificial kidney (dialysis) apparatus

21

90189050

Diathermy apparatus

22

90189060

Blood transfusion apparatus

23

90189070

Anaesthetic apparatus and instruments

24

90189090

Other instruments and appliances

25

90191010

Massage apparatus

26

90191090

Other mechano-therapy appliance; massage apparatus; psychological aptitude-testing apparatus

27

90192000

Ozone therapy, oxygen therapy, aerosol therapy, Artificial respiration or Other therapeutic respiration apparatus

28

90211100

Artificial joints

29

90211900

Other orthopaedic or fracture appliances

30

90212100

Artificial teeth

31

90212900

Other Artificial teeth and dental fittings

32

90213000

Other Artificial parts of the body

33

90214000

Hearing aids, excluding parts and accessories

34

90215000

Pacemakers for stimulating heart muscles, excluding parts and accessories

35

90219000

Other orthopaedic appliances, splints, artificial parts of the body, other appliances implanted in the body

36

90221300

Apparatus based on the use of X-rays, for dental uses

37

90221400

Apparatus based on the use of X-rays, for medical, surgical or veterinary uses:

38

90222100

Apparatus based on the use of alpha, beta or gamma radiations, For medical, surgical, dental or veterinary uses

39

90222900

Apparatus based on the use of alpha, beta or gamma radiations, For other uses

 

4.1 Import Value And Volume From 1996 To 1998

4.1.1 Total Import Value From 1996 To 1998

According to the Customs statistics, China annually expended US$ 400- 500 million in importing medical equipment from 1996 to 1998, following tables show the details.

 

Table 15 Total Import Value From 1996 To 1998

Unit: US$

Table 15. Total Import Value From 1996 To 1998

Figure 6 Total Import Value From 1996 To 1998

Figure 6  Total Import Value From 1996 To 1998

 

4.1.2 Import Value And Volume by Countries in 1996

HS Code

Origin

Unit of Import Volume

Import Volume

Import Value in US$

9018

United States

Set

3,922,673

98,735,672

9018

Japan

kg

7,140,724

94,274,378

9018

Germany

kg

627,954

29,217,919

9018

Hong Kong

Set

246,981

14,233,218

9018

Netherlands

Set

1,151

12,479,210

9018

China

kg

23,364

6,821,309

9018

France

Set

339,135

5,813,137

9018

Singapore

Set

31,730,607

5,275,478

9018

Sweden

Set

96,105

4,571,983

9018

Israel

Set

4,348

4,332,855

9018

Italy

Set

4,063,184

2,847,408

9018

Korea Rep

kg

102,623

2,466,503

9018

United Kingdom

Set

138,299

2,254,239

9018

Denmark

Set

8,022

1,685,818

9018

Switzerland

Set

1,343

1,624,433

9018

Taiwan

Set

4,939,322

1,105,787

9018

Finland

Set

819

1,105,205

9018

Malaysia

Set

511,511

699,253

9018

Australia

Set

2,742

589,007

9018

Thailand

Set

57,646,732

396,670

9018

Canada

Set

938

339,403

9018

Belgium

Set

1,041

169,660

9018

Norway

Set

3

134,594

9018

India

Set

66

113,159

9018

Luxembourg

Set

233

99,961

9018

Austria

Set

6

54,446

9018

Pakistan

Set

14

32,580

9018

Russia

Set

3

24,750

9018

Spain

Set

2,131,307

24,453

9018

Mexico

Set

9,743

15,625

9018

New Zealand

kg

2,466

12,644

9018

Brazil

Set

23

8,692

9018

Ireland

Set

4,427

8,582

9018

Slovak

Set

2

2,100

9018

Philippines

Set

1

1,905

9018

Slovenia Rep

Set

448

9018

Zimbabwe

Set

466

195

9018

Cuba

Set

1

98

9018

Czech

Set

48

Total

113,698,379

291,572,825

9019

Japan

Set

161,149

5,196,130

9019

United States

Set

4,747

2,040,311

9019

Hong Kong

Set

53,944

1,464,672

9019

Germany

Set

2,301

919,129

9019

Taiwan

Set

11,000

755,913

9019

Sweden

Set

44

515,314

9019

Italy

Set

1,747

468,172

9019

United Kingdom

Set

2,006

93,131

9019

Russia

Set

34

88,442

9019

Denmark

Set

96

74,543

9019

Korea Rep

Set

5,650

64,546

9019

France

Set

40

48,142

9019

Switzerland

Set

8

30,934

9019

Thailand

Set

469

28,600

9019

Finland

Set

46

12,837

9019

Netherlands

Set

20

12,320

9019

Australia

Set

4

10,724

9019

Canada

Set

9

10,587

9019

Norway

Set

9

5,864

9019

Malaysia

Set

688

5,638

9019

Singapore

Set

139

4,404

9019

S. Africa

Set

3,070

9019

New Zealand

Set

50

900

9019

Indonesia

Set

1

100

Total

244,201

11,854,423

9021

United States

kg

15,732

3,499,570

9021

Germany

kg

13,340

1,848,737

9021

Sweden

kg

916

494,963

9021

France

kg

870

354,675

9021

Hong Kong

kg

12,697

257,711

9021

Japan

Set

7,858

246,662

9021

Denmark

Set

10,334

214,105

9021

Taiwan

Set

11,109

185,231

9021

Italy

kg

453

78,608

9021

Belgium

kg

318

76,039

9021

Singapore

kg

10,835

72,045

9021

Switzerland

kg

532

59,063

9021

United Kingdom

kg

397

49,273

9021

Brazil

kg

254

42,470

9021

Canada

Set

857

33,437

9021

Korea Rep

Set

3,488

29,970

9021

China

kg

1,275

5,366

9021

Ireland

Set

11

4,046

9021

India

Set

30

3,000

9021

Netherlands

kg

35

194

Total

91,341

7,555,165

9022

Japan

Set

586,158

58,070,041

9022

United States

Set

958,492

56,538,099

9022

Germany

Set

134,410

41,729,569

9022

Netherlands

Set

27,423

12,158,153

9022

France

kg

55,758

6,457,957

9022

Israel

Set

8,914

4,440,852

9022

United Kingdom

Set

926

3,126,015

9022

Korea Rep

Set

69,243

2,631,176

9022

Sweden

kg

18

1,620,973

9022

Hong Kong

kg

24,171

1,370,274

9022

Switzerland

kg

46,036

1,003,784

9022

Belgium

Set

6

795,892

9022

Australia

Set

6,827

743,052

9022

Italy

kg

25,988

714,962

9022

Canada

Set

282

685,772

9022

Russia

Set

327

594,535

9022

Singapore

kg

2,566

536,329

9022

Taiwan

kg

3,881

509,857

9022

Denmark

Set

25

466,609

9022

India

kg

2,460

391,122

9022

Yugoslavia FR

Set

50

86,950

9022

Finland

Set

20

65,285

9022

Luxembourg

Set

1

62,000

9022

Malaysia

kg

18,131

55,732

9022

Spain

Set

1

8,917

9022

Slovenia Rep

kg

260

4,127

9022

China

kg

151

586

9022

Thailand

kg

140

326

9022

Philippines

kg

1

217

Total

1,972,666

194,869,163

 

4.1.3 Import Value And Volume by Countries in 1997

HS Code

Origin

Unit of Import Volume

Import Volume

Import Value in US$

9018

Japan

Set

44,337,480

91,233,785

9018

United States

Set

10,286,594

75,191,281

9018

Germany

Set

521,656

32,452,237

9018

Netherlands

Set

521,950

8,343,024

9018

China

kg

40,477

8,126,823

9018

Hong Kong

Set

824,059

7,328,453

9018

Italy

Set

17,877,251

5,726,744

9018

Malaysia

Set

980,027

4,482,711

9018

Sweden

Set

32,743

3,879,124

9018

Singapore

kg

11,172,583

3,696,959

9018

Spain

Set

1,542,663

2,543,290

9018

Finland

Set

306

2,292,529

9018

Denmark

Set

20,355

1,836,755

9018

Korea Rep

Set

33,940,439

1,575,868

9018

United Kingdom

Set

42,547

1,264,167

9018

France

Set

62,819

1,044,326

9018

Israel

Set

369

961,766

9018

Taiwan

Set

2,592,911

931,985

9018

Switzerland

Set

40,185

697,955

9018

Thailand

Set

134,718,896

686,346

9018

Norway

Set

2

474,200

9018

Austria

Set

33

454,749

9018

Canada

Set

5,768

391,317

9018

India

Set

43

355,910

9018

Australia

Set

925

248,202

9018

Ireland

Set

1,433

68,206

9018

Colombia

Set

1,100,400

48,313

9018

Brazil

Set

15

39,580

9018

Belgium

kg

818

31,302

9018

Mexico

Set

1

30,360

9018

Dominican Rep

Set

108,960

25,061

9018

Philippines

Set

1

15,301

9018

Indonesia

Set

10,262

9018

Greece

Set

1

7,021

9018

Czech

Set

4

4,388

9018

Slovak

Set

6,753

4,128

9018

S. Africa

kg

1

2,275

9018

New Zealand

kg

5

829

9018

Argentina

Set

758

9018

Fiji

Set

20

40

Total

260,781,493

256,508,330

9019

Japan

Set

16,914

3,613,139

9019

United States

Set

4,070

2,143,392

9019

Taiwan

Set

28,204

1,070,726

9019

Hong Kong

Set

31,228

928,524

9019

Sweden

Set

113

799,676

9019

Germany

Set

706

696,398

9019

Singapore

Set

9,042

386,190

9019

United Kingdom

Set

998

239,380

9019

Spain

Set

5

188,225

9019

Italy

Set

1,048

133,142

9019

Switzerland

Set

3

75,000

9019

Korea Rep

Set

942

43,030

9019

Australia

Set

17

35,711

9019

Thailand

Set

95

29,283

9019

Malaysia

Set

551

17,358

9019

Belgium

Set

2,600

16,063

9019

New Zealand

Set

200

13,777

9019

Russia

Set

6

13,120

9019

Canada

Set

1

8,000

9019

France

Set

14

7,781

9019

Finland

Set

18

7,271

9019

Israel

Set

40

7,037

9019

Denmark

Set

1

3,819

9019

Macau

Set

3,727

9019

China

Set

3,000

1,286

9019

Norway

Set

4

1,203

9019

Korea, DPR

Set

1

200

Total

99,821

10,482,458

9021

United States

kg

29,735

3,969,771

9021

Germany

Set

18,984

2,405,365

9021

Denmark

kg

423,466

596,754

9021

Switzerland

kg

637

596,078

9021

Taiwan

kg

10,978

502,887

9021

France

kg

1,008

404,174

9021

Japan

Set

7,164

288,561

9021

Hong Kong

kg

10,696

196,176

9021

United Kingdom

kg

877

165,887

9021

Sweden

kg

1,865

156,017

9021

Belgium

kg

260

154,248

9021

Brazil

kg

440

96,336

9021

Netherlands

kg

484

75,477

9021

Singapore

kg

1,241

65,376

9021

Canada

kg

143

18,805

9021

Finland

kg

45

14,645

9021

Korea Rep

kg

414

10,653

9021

India

kg

19

4,408

9021

Austria

kg

1

2,635

9021

Malaysia

kg

29

1,000

9021

Italy

kg

1

399

9021

Australia

kg

3

250

9021

China

kg

10

129

9021

New Zealand

kg

14

115

Total

508,514

9,726,146

9022

United States

Set

1,032,639

47,258,045

9022

Japan

Set

667,782

45,448,525

9022

Germany

kg

234,684

29,986,421

9022

Netherlands

kg

43,425

13,006,160

9022

France

Set

119,974

6,537,495

9022

Israel

kg

12,521

4,024,980

9022

Russia

Set

1,050

3,285,975

9022

Spain

Set

21

2,900,985

9022

Italy

kg

32,324

2,086,424

9022

Australia

kg

2,382

1,341,917

9022

Hong Kong

kg

23,343

1,161,026

9022

Singapore

Set

11,624

930,628

9022

India

kg

4,825

734,110

9022

Korea Rep

kg

232,707

685,331

9022

Belgium

Set

2,757

551,102

9022

United Kingdom

kg

12,998

508,748

9022

Taiwan

kg

39,982

276,781

9022

Sweden

kg

14,269

230,920

9022

Switzerland

Set

42

192,336

9022

Finland

Set

1,998

120,154

9022

Canada

kg

21,282

117,692

9022

Yugoslavia FR

Set

50

86,950

9022

Denmark

Set

43

64,205

9022

Malaysia

kg

18,405

38,613

9022

Portugal

kg

260

12,394

9022

Austria

kg

11

967

9022

Brazil

kg

20

37

Total

2,531,418

161,588,921

 

 

4.1.4 Import Value And Volume by Countries in 1998

HS Code

Origin

Unit of Import Volume

Import Volume

Import Value in US$

9018

United States

Set

25,449,844

102,000,000

9018

Japan

Set

77,834,082

74,224,629

9018

Germany

Set

593,120

31,012,048

9018

Netherlands

Set

30,787

10,179,594

9018

Israel

Set

242

9,271,671

9018

Hong Kong

Set

882,412

7,380,343

9018

China

Set

650,771

7,109,368

9018

Sweden

Set

9,606

4,763,253

9018

Singapore

Set

28,783,256

4,529,251

9018

France

Set

46,479

3,968,624

9018

Finland

Set

169

2,864,302

9018

Austria

Set

2,903

2,810,933

9018

Korea Rep

kg

29,102,689

2,651,102

9018

United Kingdom

Set

17,316

2,435,166

9018

Italy

Set

13,489,353

2,215,821

9018

Denmark

Set

1,245,091

1,912,566

9018

Malaysia

Set

1,889,050

1,879,882

9018

Switzerland

kg

2,739

1,533,860

9018

Taiwan

Set

467,492

1,109,279

9018

Thailand

Set

2,933,928

856,828

9018

Norway

Set

63

627,346

9018

Belgium

Set

406,815

617,658

9018

India

Set

89

524,997

9018

Canada

Set

205

338,552

9018

Australia

Set

286,907

335,783

9018

Ireland

Set

18

206,537

9018

Yugoslavia FR

Set

1,035

150,537

9018

Spain

kg

4,062,512

134,253

9018

Dominican Rep

Set

1

112,898

9018

Philippines

Set

168,001

93,649

9018

Brazil

Set

30

59,983

9018

Russia

Set

71

30,158

9018

Mexico

Set

1

18,942

9018

Hungary

Set

14,084

9018

Poland

Set

1

12,687

9018

Indonesia

Set

2

12,192

9018

New Zealand

Set

1,516

9,216

9018

Puerto Rico

Set

36,000

3,935

9018

Colombia

Set

2

2,434

9018

Greece

Set

4,040

2,020

9018

Cuba

Set

2

289

Total

188,398,640

278,016,670

9019

Japan

Set

132,000

2,671,764

9019

United States

Set

19,362

2,173,288

9019

Germany

Set

1,587

1,033,899

9019

Sweden

Set

36

592,557

9019

Taiwan

Set

11,785

506,465

9019

Hong Kong

Set

16,065

431,747

9019

Netherlands

Set

1

287,000

9019

Singapore

Set

6,451

191,158

9019

Italy

Set

839

175,897

9019

United Kingdom

Set

505

84,585

9019

Korea Rep

Set

1,004

33,377

9019

Israel

Set

1

30,800

9019

Australia

Set

26

16,586

9019

France

Set

25

14,857

9019

Thailand

Set

77

14,049

9019

Switzerland

Set

7

13,563

9019

Denmark

Set

37

12,887

9019

Canada

Set

1

5,700

9019

Brazil

Set

10

4,383

9019

China

Set

1,550

4,202

9019

Norway

Set

6

2,653

9019

Finland

Set

4

1,966

9019

New Zealand

Set

50

1,800

9019

Malaysia

Set

11

582

Total

191,440

8,305,765

9021

United States

Set

48,882

4,532,650

9021

Germany

Set

18,165

2,593,539

9021

Switzerland

kg

1,942

1,287,209

9021

Taiwan

kg

16,606

965,005

9021

Denmark

kg

300,874

651,613

9021

United Kingdom

kg

2,010

507,873

9021

Singapore

kg

9,222

392,324

9021

Japan

kg

6,889

374,082

9021

Hong Kong

kg

4,623

360,826

9021

Sweden

kg

1,878

180,363

9021

Netherlands

kg

390

128,762

9021

Finland

kg

84

84,511

9021

Brazil

kg

229

61,920

9021

France

kg

106

48,185

9021

Estonia

Set

713

28,392

9021

Canada

Set

548

25,367

9021

Norway

kg

20

10,000

9021

China

kg

3,027

5,373

9021

Korea Rep

kg

318

4,626

9021

India

Set

25

3,000

9021

New Zealand

kg

8

1,076

9021

Australia

kg

6

1,036

9021

Malaysia

kg

100

829

9021

Italy

kg

4

663

9021

Indonesia

kg

19

203

9021

Israel

kg

5

151

Total

416,693

12,249,578

9022

United States

kg

403,553

62,165,988

9022

Japan

Set

564,126

55,306,198

9022

Germany

Set

179,304

36,518,980

9022

France

Set

32,284

11,392,946

9022

Israel

Set

3,108

11,021,291

9022

Netherlands

Set

16,267

10,771,117

9022

United Kingdom

kg

9,113

4,148,446

9022

Italy

kg

98,413

1,904,295

9022

Korea Rep

kg

37,143

1,736,568

9022

Hong Kong

kg

47,433

1,435,271

9022

India

kg

7,370

1,331,312

9022

Singapore

kg

34,844

1,237,599

9022

Canada

kg

4,009

1,136,210

9022

Belgium

kg

369

1,099,992

9022

Australia

kg

4,739

1,044,343

9022

Taiwan

kg

110,988

798,052

9022

Russia

kg

2,019

706,139

9022

Spain

kg

7,592

415,133

9022

Finland

Set

53

327,218

9022

Switzerland

kg

347

325,585

9022

Sweden

Set

439

209,781

9022

Denmark

kg

329

163,889

9022

Malaysia

kg

6,296

141,510

9022

Indonesia

kg

1,410

95,000

9022

Austria

Set

1

9,500

9022

Ireland

kg

13

1,477

9022

Brazil

Set

1

1,207

9022

Thailand

kg

1

439

Total

1,571,564

205,445,486

 

4.2 China's Major Medical Equipment Importers In 1998

4.2.1 Top Five Importers for Medical Equipment with H.S. Code of 9018

Table 16 Top Five Importers for Medical Equipment with H.S. Code of 9018

Importers

Import Value in US$

Percentage of Total

Total

278,375,100

99.9

Omron ( Dalian ) Co., Ltd.

27,595,685

9.9

China National Medical & Health Instruments I/E Corp.

17,249,059

6.2

Hewlett-Packard Medical Products ( Qingdao ) Co., Ltd.

7,488,536

2.7

China National Medicines & Health Products I/E Corp.

5,673,645

2

China National Instruments & Equipment I/E Corp.

5,660,805

2

Other 1,100 Companies

214707370

77.1

4.2.2 Top Five Importers for Medical Equipment with H.S. Code of 9019

Table 17 Top Five Importers for Medical Equipment with H.S. Code of 9019

Importers

Import Value in US$

Percentage of Total

total

8,305,765

100

China National Instruments I/E Corp.

751,583

9

Guangdong Medicine & Health I/E Corp.

653,610

7.9

Jilin Machinery I/E Corp.

461,000

5.6

Osm International Trade ( Shanghai ) Co., Ltd.

374,473

4.5

Dato Osm Health Products ( Suzhou ) Co., Ltd.

282,074

3.4

Other 200 Companies

5,783,025

69.6

4.2.3 Top Five Importers for Medical Equipment with H.S. Code of 9021

Table 18 Top Five Importers for Medical Equipment with H.S. Code of 9021

Importers

Import Value in US$

Percentage of Total

Total

12,249,578

99.9

Sino-U.S. Qinming Medical Appliances Co., Ltd.

1,323,566

10.8

Beijing Ottobock Orthopedic Industrial Co., Ltd.

1,163,996

9.5

Beijing Plus-Gangyan Orthopedic Products Co., Ltd.

960,632

7.8

Alcon ( China ) Opthalmology Products Co., Ltd.

782,545

6.4

Teh Lin Prosthetic & Orthopedic ( Shenzhen ) Co., Ltd.

712,566

5.8

Other 180 Companies

7,306,273

59.6

4.2.4 Top Five Importers for Medical Equipment with H.S. Code of 9022

Table 19 Top Five Importers for Medical Equipment with H.S. Code of 9022

Importers

Import Value in US$

Percentage of Total

total

205,445,486

100

China National Medical & Health Instruments I/E Corp.

19,142,232

9.3

China National Instruments I/E Corp.

11,411,232

5.6

Hangwei General Electric Medical System Co., Ltd.

10,165,638

4.9

China National Medicines & Health Products I/E Corp.

6,673,392

3.2

China National Electronics I/E. Corp. Beijing Branch

5,897,189

2.9

Other 500 Companies

152,155,803

74.1

 

4.2.5 Contact Details of China's Top Medical Equipment Importers

 

Table 20 Contact Details of China's Top Medical Equipment Importers

COMPANY NAME

CONTACT PERSON

TEL

ADDRESS

POST CODE

Omron ( Dalian ) Co., Ltd.

Tianming Gang

0411 7614222

No.3 Songjiang Rd. Economic & Technology Development Zone, Dalian, Liaoning Province

116600

China National Medical & Health Instruments I/E Corp.

Fumin Li

010 64283459

No.21 North Andeli St. Beijing

100011

Hewlett-Packard Medical Products ( Qingdao ) Co., Ltd.

Wenjie Chen

0532 8701333

Hi-Tech Industrial Zone, Qingdao City, Shandong Province

266101

China National Medicines & Health Products I/E Corp.

Guosheng Liu

010 67116688

No.18 Guangming St. Chongwen District, Beijing

100061

China National Instruments & Equipment I/E Corp.

Guizhou Zhou

010 68330689

Rm.623 Zhongyi Building, No.6 Xizhimenwai Dajie, Xicheng Distrtic, Beijing

100044

Guangdong Medicine & Health I/E Corp.

Huizhuo Yang

020 87772168

No.10 Zhinan Rd. Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province

510080

Jilin Machinery I/E Corp.

Zhonglin Wu

0431 5647042

No.14 Xinmin Dajie, Changchun City, Jilin Province

130020

Osm International Trade

( Shanghai ) Co., Ltd.

Caifu Shen

021 58733138

No.605, Market Business Floor, 2001, North Yanggao Rd. Waigaoqiao Bonded Area, Shanghai

200127

Dato Osm Health Products ( Suzhou ) Co., Ltd.

Shimizu Shinzo

0512 7613682

No.45 Baiyu Rd. Industrial Park, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province

215021

Hangwei General Electric Medical System Co., Ltd.

Jianqiu Xu

010 67881880

No.2 North Yongchang Rd. Economic Technology Zone, Beijing

100176

China National Electronics I/E. Corp. Beijing Branch

Lan Chen

010 62257363

No.113 Xizhimennei Dajie, Xicheng District, Beijing

100035

China National Instruments I/E Corp.

Hanchen Zhang

010 68363322

Zhongyi Building, No.6 Xizhimenwai Dajie, Xicheng Distrtic, Beijing

100044

Alcon ( China ) Ophthalmology Products Co., Ltd.

Chunfang Wang

010 64676688

12/F, Xinhengji Building, No.3 West Maizidian Rd. Chaoyang District, Beijing

100016

Beijing Plus-Gangyan Orthopedic Products Co., Ltd.

Zengyong Zhong

010 65893965

No. 76 Xueyuan Rd. Haidian District, Beijing

100081

Beijing Ottobock Orthopedic Industrial Co., Ltd.

Hansi. Qiao

010 65078782

A6, Baijiazhuang Rd. Chaoyang District, Beijing

100020

Teh Lin Prosthetic & Orthopedic ( Shenzhen ) Co., Ltd.

Senrong Chen

0755 5508963

No.19 Tianbeisi Rd. Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province

518020

Sino-U.S. Qinming Medical Appliances Co., Ltd.

Fujiang Zhang

0917 3283814 3283568

No. 101 Baofu Rd. Baoji City, Shaanxi Province

721001

5 Tariffs And Non-Tariff Controls on Importation of Medical Equipment

 

The MFN duty on imported medical equipment is from 6 to 17 percent, the value added tax (VAT) is 17 percent, while the consumption duty is exempted. Chinese importers are not required to apply license and quota for importing medical equipment, but most kinds of imported medical equipment are required compulsory import inspection. Some kinds of imported medical equipment are required international bid by State Office for Import and Export of Mechanical and Electrical Products. Details please see following table:

 

H.S. Code

Description of Equipment

Import Duty Rate

VAT

Total Import Duty Rate

Import Registration

Import Inspection

90181100

Electrocardiographs

11

17

29.87

90181210

B-ultrasonic diagnostic equipment

15

17

34.55

R

I

90181290

Other Ultrasonic scanning apparatus

11

17

29.87

I

90181300

Magnetic resonance imaging apparatus

11

17

29.87

I

90181400

Scintigraphic apparatus

11

17

29.87

I

90181930

Patient monitors

11

17

29.87

I

90181990

Other electro-diagnostic apparatus

11

17

29.87

I

90182000

Ultra-violet or infra-red ray apparatus

11

17

29.87

I

90183100

Syringes, with or without needles

10

17

28.7

I

90183210

Tubular metal needles

10

17

28.7

I

90183220

needles for sutures

10

17

28.7

I

90183900

Other Syringes, needles, catheters, cannulae and the like

10

17

28.7

I

90184100

Dental drill engines, whether or Not combined on a single base with Other Dental equipment

10

17

28.7

I

90184910

Dentists' chairs incorporating dental equipment

10

17

28.7

R

I

90184990

Other instruments and appliances, used in dental sciences

10

17

28.7

I

90185000

Other ophthalmic instruments and appliances

10

17

28.7

I

90189010

Stethoscopes

10

17

28.7

90189020

Sphygmomanometers

10

17

28.7

I

90189030

Endoscopes

10

17

28.7

I

90189040

Artificial kidney (dialysis) apparatus

10

17

28.7

I

90189050

Diathermy apparatus

10

17

28.7

I

90189060

Blood transfusion apparatus

10

17

28.7

I

90189070

Anaesthetic apparatus and instruments

10

17

28.7

I

90189090

Other instruments and appliances

10

17

28.7

R

I

90191010

Massage apparatus

15

17

34.55

90191090

Other mechano-therapy appliance; massage apparatus; psychological aptitude-testing apparatus

10

17

28.7

90192000

Ozone therapy, oxygen therapy, aerosol therapy, Artificial respiration or Other therapeutic respiration apparatus

10

17

28.7

90211100

Artificial joints

10

17

28.7

90211900

Other orthopaedic or fracture appliances

10

17

28.7

90212100

Artificial teeth

10

17

28.7

90212900

Other Artificial teeth and dental fittings

10

17

28.7

90213000

Other Artificial parts of the body

10

17

28.7

90214000

Hearing aids, excluding parts and accessories

10

17

28.7

90215000

Pacemakers for stimulating heart muscles, excluding parts and accessories

10

17

28.7

I

90219000

Other orthopaedic appliances, splints, artificial parts of the body, other appliances implanted in the body

10

17

28.7

90221300

Apparatus based on the use of X-rays, for dental uses

6

17

24.02

R

I

90221400

Apparatus based on the use of X-rays, for medical, surgical or veterinary uses:

6

17

24.02

R

I

90222100

Apparatus based on the use of alpha, beta or gamma radiations, For medical, surgical, dental or veterinary uses

6

17

24.02

R

I

90222900

Apparatus based on the use of alpha, beta or gamma radiations, For other uses

6

17

24.02

I

Notes:

* Letter R Stands for : Require International Public Tender

* Letter I Stands for: Import Inspection

The Medical Equipment Bureau of the State Drug Administration (SDA) is responsible for examining and approving for importation of medical equipment. The Bureau promulgated ^Measures of Administration for Registering the Imported Medical Apparatus and Instruments ̄ in 1996, which stipulates that all imported medical apparatuses and instruments shall be registered and approved by SDA. The ^Measures ̄ have been practiced since 1997, and more than 2000 kinds of foreign products have been formally registered, and entered into Chinese markets.

6 List of selected 1,000 Hospitals

N/A



<< Back